Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 255-273 (2011)



J.Y.K. Chan 1, S.S.H. Cho 2 and F.G. Albermani 1,*

1 School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Australia

2 Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

*(Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 24 November 2010; Revised: 16 February 2011; Accepted: 25 February 2011




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


At elevated temperatures, the stress-strain relationship of steel will be nonlinear. When one of the columns of a steel frame is subject to a local fire, the material properties of the column will deteriorate locally. Although the column is weakened, the steel frame will not collapse immediately if the frame is robust enough so that the excessive internal forces of the column can be redistributed by its connecting members. Structural design with robustness consideration can prevent a steel building under local fire from collapse. This paper is to propose a second-order analysis and design method for 2-D steel frames considering the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the material under elevated temperatures. Results are found to be in line with the Eurocode 3 predicted failure loads.



Steel, Column, Frame, Fire, Elevated temperature, Second-order analysis


[1] CEN, “Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures – Part 1-2: General Rules – Structural Fire Design, BS EN 1993-1-2”, British Standards Institution, London, 2005.

[2] CEN, “Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, BS EN 1993-1-1”, British Standards Institution, London, 2005.

[3] Franssen, J.M., Talamona, D., Kruppa, J. and Cajot, L.G., “Stability of Steel Columns in Case of Fire: Experimental Evaluation”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 1998, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 158-163.

[4] Yang, K.C., Lee, H.H. and Chan, O., “Performance of Steel H columns Loaded under Uniform Temperature”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier, 2006, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 262-270.

[5] Yang, K.C. and Hsu, R., “Structural Behavior of Centrally Loaded Steel Columns at Elevated Temperature”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier, 2009, Vol. 65, No. 10-11, pp. 2062-2068.

[6] BSI, “Structural Use of Steelwork in Building – Part 8: Part 8: Code of Practice for Fire Resistant Design, BS5950-8”, British Standards Institution, London, 2003.

[7] AISC. “Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSI/AISC 360-05”, American Institution of Steel Construction, Chicago (IL), 2005.

[8] Janss, J., “Statistical Analysis of Fire Tests on Steel Beams and Columns to Eurocode 3, Part 1.2”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier, 1995, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 39-50.

[9] Janss, J. and Minne, R., “Buckling of Steel Columns in Fire Conditions”, Fire Safety Journal, Elsevier, 1982, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 227-235.

[10] Ali, F. and O’Connor, D., “Structural Performance of Rotationally Restrained Steel Columns in Fire”, Fire Safety Journal, Elsevier, 2001, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp. 679-691.

[11] Wang, Y.C. and Davies, J.M., “An Experimental Study of Non-sway Loaded and Rotationally Restrained Steel Column Assemblies under Fire Conditions: Analysis of Test Results and Design Calculations”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier, 2003, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 291-313.

[12] Tan, K.H., Toh, W.S., Huang, Z.F. and Phng, G.H., “Structural Responses of Restrained Steel Columns at Elevated Temperatures. Part 1: Experiments”, Engineering Structures, Elsevier, 2007, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 1641-1652.